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Notations used in the tables and graphs of the 2010 Red List

Drawing: Terhi Ryttäri

The categories (IUCN)

RE = Regionally Extinct
CR = Critically Endangered
EN = Endangered
VU = Vulnerable
NT = Near Threatened
DD = Data Deficient

IUCN-categories (jpg)

Definitions of the IUCN categories (pdf)

Additional notations

º = The category determined on the basis of the criteria was downgraded by one category, as the population in Finland is connected to a more viable population outside Finland.
º º = The category determined on the basis of the criteria was downgraded by two categories, as the population in Finland is connected to a more viable population outside Finland.
• = Possibly regionally extinct species

The habitats

The classification is hierarchical. The most appropriate level is selected.

M = Forests
Mk = heath forests
Mkk = --sub-xeric, xeric and barren heath forests
Mkt = --mesic and herb-rich heath forests
Ml = herb-rich forests
Mlt = --dry and mesic herb-rich forests
Mlk = --moist herb-rich forests
Mt = mountain birch forests

Additional elements to all forest types:
v = old-growth forests
h = esker forests
p = burnt forest areas and other young stages of natural succession

Drawing Terhi Ryttäri

S = Mires
Sl = rich fens
Sla = --open rich fens (incl. herb-rich sedge fens)
Slr = --rich pine fens
Slk = --rich spruce-birch fens
Sn = fens
Snk = --ombro- and oligotrophic fens
Snr = --mesotrophic fens
Sr = pine mires
Srk = --ombro- and oligotrophic pine mires
Srr = --mesotrophic pine mires
Sk = spruce mires
Skk = --oligotrophic spruce mires
Skr = --eutrophic and mesotrophic spruce mires

The specifying additional notations ‘v’ and ‘p’ (see ‘Forests’) can also be used in the context of forested mires, if the tree stands are old or damaged by fire.

V = Aquatic habitats
Vi = Baltic Sea
Vs = lakes and ponds
Vsk = --oligotrophic lakes and ponds
Vsr = --eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes and ponds
Va = small ponds (also in mires etc.)
Vj = rivers
Vp = brooks and streams
Vk = rapids
Vl = spring complexes

Brooks, streams, rapids, and spring complexes also include the adjacent shore zones.

R = Shores
Ri = shores of the Baltic Sea
Rim = --Baltic flooded forests
Rih = --altic sand beaches
Rin = --Baltic coastal meadows
Rik = --Baltic rocky shores
Ris = --Baltic gravel-, shingle- and boulder shores
Rit = --Baltic open alluvial shores
Rj = lake shores and river banks
Rjm = --inland flooded forests
Rjh = --sandy lake shores and river banks
Rjn = --meadows on lake shores and river banks
Rjk = --inland rocky shores
Rjs = --inland gravel-, shingle- and boulder shores
Rjt = --inland open alluvial shores

The habitats ‘Rim’ and ‘Rjm’ are not used in the case of forest species living in flooded forests, unless their occurrence is associated with the shore or the effects of floods.

K = Rock outcrops (incl. erratic boulders)
Kk = calcareous rock outcrops and quarries
Ks = serpentine rock outcrops
Kr = canyons and gorges
Kl = caves and crevices
Km = other rock outcrops

The additional notations for specification of rock outcrop habitats can be used in the context of all habitat types listed above.

pa = sun-exposed
va = shady

T = Alpine heaths and meadows (above tree-level,
does not include calcareous rock outcrops)
Tk = alpine heaths
Tl = alpine rock outcrops and boulder fields
Tn = alpine meadows
Ts = alpine wetlands (mires, shores, snowbeds)

I = Rural biotopes and cultural habitats
In = seminatural dry grasslands
It = seminatural mesic grasslands
Ih = wooded pastures and pollard meadows
Ik = seminatural moist grasslands
Io = ditches etc.
Iv = arable land
Ip = parks, yards and gardens
Ij = roadsides, railway embankments etc.
Ir = buildings (and constructions)

Drawing: Terhi Ryttäri

The specifying additional notations ‘v’ and ‘p’ (see ‘Forests’) can also be used in the context of forested cultural habitats, if the tree stands are old or damaged by fire.

? = habitat unknown

Causes of threat (past) and current threat factors

Causes of threat that have led to a species’ current situation were distinguished from future threats. In many cases, causes of threat and future threat factors may be the same. On the other hand, due to trapping or earlier changes in habitat, a population may have reduced to the extent that its extremely small size exposes the species to random factors. This constitutes a major, current threat factor.

P trapping, hunting, fishing and illegal killing, including non-target animals being caught in fishing gear
Ke picking and collecting, including transfers into gardens
H disturbance and traffic
Ku mechanical wear: mechanical wear of soil and bedrock, e.g. due to trampling, driving in the terrain, rock climbing or over-grazing
R construction (on land): construction relating to housing, business, traffic and recreation, road construction, earthmoving and disposal operations relating to construction
Ks mining: sand and gravel quarrying, mineral aggregate extraction, mining
Pm changes in arable land: subsoil drainage, changes in cultivation practices and animal husbandry (excluding the overgrowing of pastures), use of machinery and changes of cultivated crop species (excluding pesticides)
Pr clearing of areas for arable land: conversion of forests, peatland and meadows into arable land
N overgrowing of meadows and other open habitats: e.g. the overgrowing of meadows and wooded pastures after grazing and mowing has ceased, the reforestation and overgrowing of gravel pits and other open areas
M forest management activities: activities not included in the threat factors listed below e.g. soil preparation. Cause of threat = the use of
forests. Further specified in the assessment work documentation.
Mp changes in the tree species composition of forests: e.g. the decreasing number of deciduous trees and the takeover of herb-rich forests by spruce
Mv reduction of old-growth forests and the decreasing number of large trees
Mk reduction of burnt forest areas and other young stages of natural succession
Ml decreasing amounts of decaying wood: decreasing amounts of decaying wood, decreasing number of dead or dying trees or branches, rotten or hollow trees
O peatland drainage for forestry and peat harvesting (excluding clearing of brooks and streams): including ditch cleaning and later impact of drainage
Vr construction of waterways: power plants, sawmill and mill dams, water-level regulation, dredging and clearing (including that of brooks and streams), structural changes in the riparian zone (e.g. embankments), water level reductions in lakes, construction of reservoirs, groundwater abstraction and utilisation of ponds, e.g. changes caused by lower groundwater level
Kh chemical disturbances: environmental toxins, pesticides, air and water pollutants, oil spills and eutrophicating deposition
I climate change: predicted global warming, increased precipitation and more frequent occurrence of extreme weather phenomena during the next 20–30 years (only applied in cases where there are specific grounds for assuming effects on the species in question)
S random factors: threat posed by random factors when the population or area of occupancy is extremely small, including short-term climatic changes
Kil competition: interspecific competition
Ris hybridisation: hybridisation with other species
Kv extreme fluctuations in population size
U changes in other countries: e.g. transformations in habitats in the wintering areas or migration staging areas of birds, trapping or hunting abroad
Vie threats caused by alien species (competition,
hybridisation, diseases, changes in ecosystems)
Muu other known reason: a known reason not included in the threat factors listed above, further specified in the assessment work documentation
? cause unknown

Reasons for change of category relative to the previous evaluation
(1) genuine change
(2) increased knowledge
(3) changes in the criteria
(4) changes in interpretation
(5) new species
(6) taxonomic change

Subzonation of the forest vegetation zones

In the subregional threat assessment of species within Finland, forest vegetation zones revised for the use of the assessment were used. The occurrence of nationally red-listed species in each subzone were documented in the assessment.

Forest vegetation zones (jpg)


Rassi, P., Hyvärinen, E., Juslén, A. & Mannerkoski, I. (eds.) 2010: The 2010 Red List of Finnish Species. Ympäristöministeriö & Suomen ympäristökeskus, Helsinki. 685 p.

2010 Red List of Finnish Species (in Finnish and English)

Published 2013-05-15 at 12:01, updated 2015-06-08 at 13:27